The Science Behind MiniVectors

MiniVectors are supercoiled DNA minicircles containing ONLY the sequence of interest, as small as a few hundred base pairs, compared to traditional plasmids that are orders of magnitude larger. Experiments have demonstrated that MiniVectors are a safe and effective platform for getting DNA into “difficult-to-transfect” cells, such as primary and stem cells.

These tiny, twisted up circles allow the first explorations of active DNA, and proteins or drugs that act on DNA.

MiniVectors transfect a wide range of cells types, have superior transfection efficiency, persist in cells, and can be used for targeted integration with CRISPR/TAL proteins, transposons, or zinc fingers.

Published and unpublished data show:

  • MiniVectors transfection is equal to siRNA and better than plasmid,
  • MiniVectors knockdown efficiency is better than siRNA and plasmid,
  • MiniVectors survive exposure to human serum for more than three times as long as plasmids, and
  • MiniVectors withstand nebulization for more than 20 minutes, making them an ideal delivery vector to lungs. No other product survives aerosolization.
  • MiniVectors transfect T-cells, stem cells, and cancer cells.

Why Choose MiniVectors?

MiniVectors provide superior transfection efficiency
MiniVectors provide superior transfection efficiency

MiniVector DNA transfects every cell type we have tried, including: aortic smooth muscle cells, suspension lymphoma cells and other difficult to transfect cell types.

MiniVectors can be nebulized
MiniVectors can be nebulized

Minivector DNA survives mechanical shear forces and survives enzymatic degradation by human serum nucleases.

MiniVectors survive human serum
MiniVectors survive human serum

DNA plasmid vector systems are stable and targeted genes can be regulated for several months by maintaining selection for the plasmid.

MiniVectors show reduced toxicity to cells
MiniVectors show reduced toxicity to cells

MiniVector delivery requires less DNA mass, which means less toxicity to cells.

Other Vector Delivery Methods Fall Short.

Viral Vectors
Viral Vectors
Can cause toxicity
Can trigger immune and inflammatory responses
Can be delivered only once
Can integrate into genome to cause misregulation
Difficult to control gene expression
Come with worry of virus mutation and reactivation
siRNA, shRNA, or miRNA
siRNA, shRNA, or miRNA
Rapidly degraded
Requires constant replenishment
Too big to penetrate cells so requires toxic delivery methods
Degraded by human serum nucleases
Highly susceptible to shear forces
Linear DNA: triggers DNA repair, activates apoptosis

MiniVectors Can Deliver any Sequence!

Experiments have demonstrated that MiniVectors are a safe and effective platform for getting DNA into “difficult-to-transfect” cells, such as primary and stem cells.


Expression of shRNA or miRNA from a MiniVector allows silencing to continue for longer time periods since multiple copies are continually expressed from each MiniVector.


MiniVectors deliver only the promoter and gene of interest. This results in minimal transfection agent requirements, exceptionally compact size, and elimination of bacterial or unnecessary sequences.

Proteins / Antibodies

A MiniVector DNA delivered by aerosolization into mouse lungs expressed a gene that was translated into a functional protein.

DNA Vaccines

The small size of an MiniVectors enables improved resistance to the shearing forces associated with e.g. pneumatic delivery methods.


DNA Repair Templates

MiniVectors may comprise a nucleic acid sequence template for homology-directed repair, alteration, or replacement of the targeted DNA sequence within a cell in vivo or in vitro.

Patented Manufacturing Process

MiniVectors are derived from a larger parent plasmid containing the origin and resistance genes necessary for amplification in bacteria. During production, a recombination event removes all of these undesirable components to leave only the pure, minimized vector containing your sequence of interest.

Our unique process gives MiniVectors several advantageous features:


  • Unprecedented small size
    MiniVectors as small as 300 bp can be generated
    Physiological supercoiling makes them even more compact
  • Exceptional stability
    The small size, circularity and supercoiling of MiniVectors confers unprecedented resistance to the shear force encountered during delivery
    MiniVectors can resist degradation in serum longer than plasmid DNA
  • Enhanced transfection efficiency
    The small and compact structure allows efficient entry into cells
    Minimized bacterial sequences reduce silencing of the construct and potential immunogenicity

Technology Publications

This Patented Technology has been Demonstrated in Several Peer-Reviewed Publications